Fasting, Prayer, Charity: The Pillars of Ramadan

Ramadan, known in Arabic as رمضان (Ramaḍān), is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm), prayer, reflection, and community. This period commemorates the first revelation of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad, according to Islamic belief, and is considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During Ramadan, fasting from dawn until sunset is obligatory for all adult Muslims, except those who are ill, traveling, elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called Suhoor, and the meal to break the fast at sunset is called Iftar. Ramadan is a time for spiritual growth, increased devotion and worship, and greater charity and community service. The end of Ramadan is marked by a festive holiday known as Eid al-Fitr, the Festival of Breaking the Fast, where communal prayers and meals are shared among family and friends.

Key Traditions of Ramadan


Fasting from dawn until sunset is a central aspect of Ramadan. Muslims abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sinful behavior during daylight hours, focusing instead on prayer, reflection, and community.


This pre-dawn meal is consumed before the fast begins each day. Suhoor is a crucial part of fasting, providing energy and hydration for the day ahead.


The meal to break the fast at sunset, often starting with dates and water in emulation of the Prophet Muhammad, followed by a larger meal. Iftar is a time for family and community gatherings.

Tarawih Prayers

Extra prayers performed at night during Ramadan. These are not obligatory but are highly encouraged and offer a time for deeper reflection and prayer.

Zakat and Sadaqah

Giving to charity is especially emphasized during Ramadan, with many Muslims paying their zakat (obligatory charity) and giving sadaqah (voluntary charity) to support those in need.

Reading the Quran

Many Muslims aim to complete the reading of the Quran during Ramadan, reflecting on its teachings and incorporating them into their lives.

Laylat al-Qadr

The Night of Decree, believed to be the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad. It is considered the holiest night of the year, with prayers and supplications intensified.

Eid al-Fitr

The festival marking the end of Ramadan, celebrated with communal prayers, feasting, and giving of gifts and charity to the poor. It is a day of joy, marking the completion of a month of fasting and worship.

Community Iftars

Large-scale iftars where communities come together to break their fast, often organized by mosques, charities, and community groups. These events foster a sense of belonging and collective worship.


Homes, mosques, and streets are often decorated with lights, lanterns, and banners to celebrate Ramadan, creating a festive atmosphere.

Most Important Works of Literature About Ramadan

“The Book of Misers” by Al-Jahiz

A classic piece of Islamic literature that, among its many themes, touches upon the changes in behavior during Ramadan, including acts of charity and the avoidance of miserliness.

“Minaret” by Leila Aboulela (2005)

A novel that explores the life of a Sudanese woman in London who rediscovers her faith during Ramadan. It delves into themes of identity, spirituality, and the meaning of Ramadan in a non-Muslim majority context.

“The Night of the Mi’raj” by Zoe Ferraris (2008)

A novel that explores cultural and religious themes within the context of a mystery story, set in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan, offering insights into the observance of the month.

“Ramadan Moon” by Na’ima B. Robert and Shirin Adl (2009)

A children’s book that captures the excitement and spiritual significance of Ramadan through the eyes of a young girl. It beautifully illustrates the phases of the moon and the practices of Ramadan.

“Once in a Promised Land” by Laila Halaby (2007)

This novel features characters navigating their lives in the United States post-9/11, with Ramadan serving as a backdrop to explore themes of faith, identity, and belonging among Arab-American communities.

Best Music About Ramadan

“Ramadan” by Maher Zain

A popular nasheed that captures the essence of Ramadan, focusing on themes of spirituality, reflection, and community. Maher Zain is a well-known singer in the Islamic music scene, and this song is a favorite during the month of Ramadan.

“Welcome Ramadan” by Zain Bhikha

This song is a gentle, welcoming tune that celebrates the arrival of Ramadan, encouraging listeners to embrace the month with joy and spiritual reflection.

Best Paintings About Ramadan

“Ramadan of the Poor People” by Azim Azimzade (1938)

This painting captures the spirit of Ramadan among the less fortunate, emphasizing the themes of community, charity, and humility that are central to the month.

Best Cakes, Cookies, and Sweets for Ramadan


A rich, sweet pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey, popular in many Muslim-majority countries during Ramadan.


A sweet Arab dessert commonly served during Ramadan, consisting of small pancakes filled with cheese or nuts and folded, then fried or baked, and soaked in syrup.

Best Food for Ramadan


A traditional Moroccan soup made with tomatoes, lentils, chickpeas, and lamb, seasoned with a blend of herbs and spices, commonly served at iftar.


A fragrant, spiced rice dish with meat (chicken, beef, or lamb), vegetables, and sometimes dried fruits, popular in South Asia and among Muslim communities worldwide for iftar.

Other Relevant Tips for Observance


Focus on drinking plenty of water during non-fasting hours to stay hydrated, especially important in hot climates or during long fasting hours.


Choose suhoor and iftar meals that are balanced and nutritious to maintain energy levels throughout the day, including proteins, whole grains, and fruits and vegetables.

Spiritual Reflection

Set aside time for additional prayer, meditation, and reading of the Quran beyond the obligatory prayers to deepen spiritual connection during the month.

Community Engagement

Participate in community iftars and charity events to strengthen bonds with the Muslim community and support those in need.


Ensure adequate rest and adjust schedules as needed to accommodate the changes in sleep patterns and energy levels during Ramadan.

Featured image: Wikipedia

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